The publications below have been published by customers or discuss applications of PHI's core technology, holographic microscopy.

2016
Novel imaging technology and tools for biomarker detection in cancer
Health and Society, Malmö University 2016
Doctoral thesis by Zahra El-Schich
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“To analyze morphological changes of death cells, [HoloMonitor] was used. Digital holographic microscopy is an approach for label-free non-invasive 3D imaging of cultured cells. We have analyzed cell death of adherent cancer cells using [HoloMonitor] and developed it to analyze suspension cells by combining this technique with antibody based micro­assays. [HoloMonitor] can be used for cell-death induced cell analysis of both adherent cells and suspension cells.”
Transcription regulation of chemokine receptor CXCR4 by nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) controls estrogen-induced malignant transformation of breast epithelial cells to breast cancer stem cells
AACR Annual Meeting 2016
J. K. Das and D. Roy
Chemokine receptor CXCR4 is involved in the maintenance of stemness property of stem cells, aging and metastasis of cancer. NRF1 is one of the major transcription factors that controls transcription of CXCR4. In this study, the authors have investigated whether transcription regulation of CXCR4 by NRF1 controls estrogen-induced malignant transformation of breast epithelial cells to breast cancer stem cells.
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Ion channels in regulated cell death
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 2016
Cell appearances during necroptotic cell death of NIH3T3 cells imaged by HoloMonitor M4.
K. Kunzelmann
Despite the rather different morphologic appearances of apoptosis and necroptosis, both mechanisms of cell death require the transport of ions, organic osmolytes, and water. The contribution of these transport proteins and underlying mechanisms are summarized in this review.
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Shielding of the Geomagnetic Field Alters Actin Assembly and Inhibits Cell Motility in Human Neuroblastoma Cells
Scientific Reports 2016
W-C. Mo, Z-J. Zhang, D-L. Wang, Y. Liu, P. Bartlett and R-Q. He
Earth’s magnetic field is a natural part of our environment. Using HoloMonitor M4, the authors show that the elimination of Earth’s magnetic field affects cell behavior. According to the authors, the findings suggest that magnetic field elimination may be used to prevent tumor progression in future clinical applications. The findings also provide clues to which health risks astronauts are exposed to during deep space explorations, where no magnetic field is present.
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-homoserine Lactone Elicits Changes in Cell Volume, Morphology, and AQP9 Characteristics in Macrophages
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 2016
A. Holm, K-E. Magnusson and E. Vikström

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the antibiotic resistant bacteria types that cause hospital-acquired infections. In combination with other imaging techniques, the authors used HoloMonitor M4 to study how these bacteria interact with the immune system.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is a serious problem in patients hospitalized with cancer, cystic fibrosis and burns. The case fatality rate in these patients is exceedingly high. Research for the discovery of new antibiotics and drugs against P. aeruginosa is therefore very much needed.

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HoloMonitor M4: holographic imaging cytometer for real-time kinetic label-free live-cell analysis of adherent cells
Proc. SPIE, Quantitative Phase Imaging II 2016
M. Sebesta, P. Egelberg, A. Langberg, J-H Lindskov, K. Alm and B. Janicke
HoloMonitor M4 is designed to provide long-term observations in the incubator environment
Live-cell imaging enables studying dynamic cellular processes that cannot be visualized in fixed-cell assays. An increasing number of scientists in academia and the pharma­ceutical industry are choosing live-cell analysis over or in addition to traditional fixed-cell assays. We have developed a time-lapse label-free imaging cytometer – HoloMonitor M4.
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The Curcumin Analog C-150, Influencing NF-κB, UPR and Akt/Notch Pathways Has Potent Anticancer Activity In Vitro and In Vivo
PLOS ONE 2016
L. Hackler et al.
Holographic microscopic analysis of C-150 induced cell death using HoloMonitor M3

C-150 – a Mannich-type curcumin derivative – exhibited pronounced cytotoxic effects against eight glioma cell lines at micromolar concentrations. Inhibition of cell pro­lifera­tion by C-150 was mediated by affecting multiple targets as confirmed at transcription and protein level. C-150 effectively reduced the transcription activation of NFkB, inhibited PKC-alpha which are constitutively over-expressed in glioblastoma.

Glioblastoma is the most common and most aggressive cancer originating within the brain.

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2015
From immobilized cells to motile cells on a bed-of-nails: effects of vertical nanowire array density on cell behavior
Scientific Reports 2015
H. Persson, Z. Li, J. O. Tegenfeldt, S. Oredsson and C. N. Prinz

During recent years, vertical nanowire arrays have received increasing atten­tion for their possible use in life sciences, as electrodes, biosensors, as well as for axonal guidance, cell injections and anti-bacterial proper­ties. The rapidly expanding number of nanowire applications calls for a better under­standing of the inter­actions between cells and nanowires.

Using HoloMonitor the researchers investigated the effects of nanowire density on cell movement, division and morphology. The results provide guidelines to minimize cellular stress on nanowire arrays. Additionally, the findings show that cell behavior can be controlled by adjusting nanowire density, which may have applications in drug development.

Article Image: Path of L929 cells migrating for 20 h on the different substrates
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Enhanced Cytotoxicity of Folic Acid-Targeted Liposomes Co-Loaded with C6 Ceramide and Doxorubicin: In Vitro Evaluation on HeLa, A2780-ADR and H69-AR Cells
Molecular Pharmaceutics 2015
S. K. Sriraman, J. Pan, C. Sarisozen, E. Luther and V. Torchilin
Article figure show showing drop in cell volume

Current research in cancer therapy is shifting towards the use of combinational drug-treatment regimens. However, the efficient delivery of drug combinations is governed by a number of complex factors in the clinical setting.

The development of a novel folic acid-targeted liposomal formulation, simultaneously co-loaded with C6 ceramide and doxorubicin is reported. FA-(C6+Dox)-LP were able to significantly enhance the induction of apoptotic events in HeLa cell mono­layers as compared to the other treatment groups.

Using HoloMonitor M4, it was found that FA-(C6+Dox)-LP treated HeLa cells underwent rapid progression to apoptosis (cell suicide) after 21 hours, as evidenced by a drastic drop in cell area after loss of cell membrane integrity.

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Water homeostasis in infection and inflammation – Quorum sensing AQP9
ASCB Annual Meeting 2015
A. Holm, K-E. Magnusson and E. Vikström
Poster Image: Representative images of the time-lapse sequence used to quantify cell volume after treatment

Macrophages are an important part of the immune system. They are activated by molecules produced by infecting bacteria. Activation induces macrophages to elevate their membrane content through water specific gates. These aquaporins allow water to enter the cells and make them swell.

This poster by researchers at Linköping University in Sweden shows this increase of aquaporins after acti­vation by bacterial molecules. Using Holo­Monitor M4, morphology analysis of activated macrophages visualizes and quantifies the increase of cell volume, following the increased number of aquaporins in the cell membrane.

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Targeted tumor therapy by Rubia tinctorum L.: analytical character­ization of hydroxyan­thraquinones and investigation of their selective cytotoxic, adhesion and migration modulator effects on melanoma cell lines
Cancer Cell International 2015
E. Lajkó, P. Bányai, Z. Zámbó, L. Kursinszki, É. Szőke and L. Kőhidai

The effects of alizarin, purpurin and an aqueous extract from transformed hairy root culture of Rubia tinctorum L. were examined on (1) cell proliferation, (2) apoptosis, (3) cell adhesion/morphology and (4) migration (chemotaxis, chemokinesis) of human melanoma cell lines (A2058, HT168-M1) and human fibroblast cells (MRC-5), as well as (5) the aqueous extract was analytically characterized.

All tested substances elicited chemo­repellent effect in melanoma cells (malignant skin cancer cells), while in MRC-5 fibroblasts, only the alizarin exhibited such a repellent character. Indices of chemo­kinesis measured by Holo­Monitor M4 (migration, migration directness, motility and motility speed) were signifi­cantly enhanced by alizarin and purpurin as well, while morphometric changes were weak in the two melanoma cell lines.

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Cathelicidins positively regulate pancreatic β-cell functions
The FASEB Journal 2015
J. Sun, M. Xu, H. Ortsäter, E. Lundeberg, L. Juntti-Berggren, Y. Q. Chen, J. Z. Haeggström, G. H. Gudmundsson, J. Diana and B. Agerberth
Article Image: Cell density after various treatments, imaged using HoloMonitor M4
Cells were seeded in a 6-well plate and allowed to adhere in RPMI 1640 medium overnight. After washing with PBS, complete media containing 0.01 mg/L scrambled rCRAMP, 0.1 mg/L scrambled rCRAMP, and 0.01 mg/L rCRAMP were added into wells. HoloMonitor M4 was used to assess the cell density during cell proliferation. An image was taken for each well per day up to 4 days.
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Comparison of the effects of pharmaceutical compounds on tumor cells in 2D and 3D in vitro models using label-free, quantitative 4 dimensional holographic imaging
AACR-NCI-EORTC Inter. Conf. on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics 2015
E. Luther, G. Salzano, S. K. Sriraman, D. Costa and V. P. Torchilin
Poster Image: As the complexity of the formulations increases, there is a decrease in the high optical thickness and a corre­spond­ing increase in the low optical thick­ness consistent with increasing cell death.
We developed a novel 4D holographic imaging method using Holo­Monitor M4 and Image J. Here, we present methods for comparing traditional 2D and 3D in vitro models. Our example of HT1080 cells treated with dox clearly shows the superiority of the 3D model, an important step in developing assays that better emulate multi-dimensional biological processes and offer the possibility of evaluating effects of drugs at lower cost and experimental complexity than those of in vivo assays.
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Four dimensional quantitative label-free holographic imaging of the cell cycle in tumor cell lines
AACR Annual Meeting 2015
Ed Luther, Jeffrey Agar and Mansoor Amiji
Poster Image: Seeding of a giant HeLa cell
Label free imaging and analysis of cells using only their physical characteristics is desirable in pharma­ceutical studies because it eliminates the effects of labeling compounds on the cells under study. We used a newly developed holographic imaging system to monitor cell-cycle effects in long term cell cultures.
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Characterization of macrophage behavior by 4-dimensional label free quantitative holographic imaging
AACR Annual Meeting 2015
Ed Luther, Meghna Talekar, Adwait Oka, Qijun Ouyang and Mansoor Amiji
The tumor microenvironment consists of several cell types including cancer cells and stromal cells (fibroblasts and inflammatory cells) embedded in extracellular matrix. Among the inflammatory cells, macrophages are critical mediators of tumorigenesis. Their behavior and activation is controlled by a large number of chemo-stimulants, and are broadly classified into two polarization groups, M1 (classically activated macro­phages), that enable the release of cytokines and chemokines that induce tumor suppression and M2 (alternatively activated macrophages), that induce tissue repair and angiogenesis. In the tumor micro­environ­ment this translates into tumor promotion. We employed a newly developed label free holographic time lapse imaging system to characterize the morphology and motility of macrophages in response to stimulants and tumor cells in 4-dimensional models of the tumor microenvironment.
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Macrophage Polarization and the Effect of MicroRNA-155 Administered in Water-in-Oil-in-Water Multiple Emulsion Formulations
Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology 2015
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Oka A, Talekar M, Ouyang Q, Luther E and Amiji M
The tumor microenvironment is composed of range of cells including macro­phages that participate in sustaining tumor growth and invasion. Repolarized macrophages were co-cultured with SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells to assess the effect on macrophage morphology, motility and apoptosis of cancer cells. Holographic assessment using HoloMonitor M4 of the co-cultured cells in real-time showed differences in motility and morphology of macrophages with miR-155 ME treated cells showing greater cellular interaction between the two phenotypes.
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Poloxamer bioadhesive hydrogel for buccal drug delivery: Cytotoxicity and trans-epithelial permeability evaluations using TR146 human buccal epithelial cell line
International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2015
N. Zenga, N. Mignet, G. Dumortier, E. Olivier, J. Seguin, M. Maury, D. Scherman, P. Rat and V. Boudy
A bioadhesive hydrogel specially developed for buccal administration was investigated by studying interactions with TR146 human buccal epithelium cells. The assessment of cell viability (MTT, Alamar Blue), membrane integrity (Neutral Red), and apoptosis assay (Hoechst 33342), were performed and associated to HoloMonitor M3 analysis. The agreement with the cell viability results shows various advantages of the HoloMonitor technique: less preparation time compared to cell staining assays, rapidity of detection and robustness for formulation screening.
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Incubator proof miniaturized HoloMonitor to in situ monitor cancer cells exposed to green tea polyphenol and preosteoblast cells adhering on nanostructured titanate surfaces: validity of the measured parameters and their corrections
J. Biomed. Opt 2015
Beatrix Peter, Judit Nador, Krisztina Juhasz, Agnes Dobos, Laszlo Korosi, Inna Székács, Daniel Patko and Robert Horvath
HoloMonitor M4 was used to observe cancer cell motility, motility speed, and migration in the presence of the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin gallate, as well as to monitor the adhesion of preosteoblast cells on nanostructured titanate coatings, relevant for biomedical applications.
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Reversal of Chemoresistance in Ovarian Cancer by Co-Delivery of MDR Inhibitors and Paclitaxel Using a Targeted Liposomal Platform
The FASEB Journal 2015
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Shravan Kumar Sriraman, Yilin Zhang, Ernst Lengyel and Vladimir Torchilin
Co-loaded liposomes were able to effectively reverse chemoresistance in a variety of drug-resistant ovarian cancers. The cellular effects of the formulations were evaluated using HoloMonitor M4.
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Interfacing antibody-based microarrays and digital holography enables label-free detection for loss of cell volume
Future Science OA 2015
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Zahra El-Schich, Emmy Nilsson, Anna S Gerdtsson, Christer Wingren and Anette Gjörloff Wingren
The article provides proof of concept for using holographic microscopy combined with antibody-based microarray technology for detecting morphological changes in captured cells.
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Induction of morphological changes in death-induced cancer cells monitored by holographic microscopy
Journal of Structural Biology 2015
Zahra El-Schich, Anna Mölder, Helena Tassidis, Pirkko Härkönen, Maria Falck Miniotis and Anette Gjörloff Wingren
Using HoloMonitor M3, the authors show that holographic microscopy allows label-free and completely non-invasive morphological measurements of cell growth, viability and death.
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2014
Quantitative Stain-Free and Continuous Multimodal Monitoring of Wound Healing In Vitro with Digital Holographic Microscopy
PLoS ONE 2014
D. Bettenworth et al.
In this study, it is shown that holographic microscopy enables continuous, stain-free monitoring of intestinal epithelial wound healing in vitro and to provide simultaneous quantification of key cellular characteristics such as cell volume, cell thickness, dry mass and cell density which may help to characterize therapeutic effects of potential drug candidates.
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Live-cell mass profiling: an emerging approach in quantitative biophysics
Nature Methods 2014
Thomas A Zangle and Michael A Teitell
The authors discuss how live-cell mass profiling can be achieved by using holographic microscopy and how this can revolutionize our understanding of cellular physiology and growth.
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Combination of unsaturated fatty acids and ionizing radiation on human glioma cells: cellular, biochemical and gene expression analysis
Lipids in Health and Disease 2014
Otilia Antal, László Hackler, Junhui Shen, Imola Mán, Katalin Hideghéty, Klára Kitajka and László G Puskás
HoloMonitor M3 was used to assess the increased death of glioma (brain tumor) cells when combining irradiation with various unsaturated fatty acids treatments.
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Digital Holographic Microscopy for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Cell Cycle Arrest in L929 Cells
PLOS ONE 2014
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Maria Falck Miniotis, Anthonny Mukwaya and Anette Gjörloff Wingren
The study show that holographic microscopy is able to monitor drug-induced cell cycle arrest in cultured cells and thus provide a non-disruptive alternative to flow cytometry.
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Nanowires in Cell Biology – Exploring Interactions and Applications
Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University 2014
Doctoral thesis by Henrik Persson
Thesis Image: Cells on nanowires imaged by HoloMonitor M4
Using HoloMonitor M4 this thesis explores the interactions between cells and nanowires, to increase our under­standing of how cells are affected and how they can be manipulated by these one-dimensional, semiconductor, crystals.
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Edaravone Protects against Methylglyoxal-Induced Barrier Damage in Human Brain Endothelial Cells
PLOS ONE 2014
Andrea E. Tóth et al
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The authors use HoloMonitor M3 to study morphological alterations induced in human brain endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) by treatment with methylglyoxal and co-treatment with edaravone for 4 hours. Methylglyoxal triggers carbonyl stress and activates a series of inflammatory responses leading to accelerated vascular damage. Edaravone is the active substance of a Japanese medicine, which aids neurological recovery following acute brain ischemia and subsequent cerebral infarction. The aim of the study was to test whether edaravone can exert a protective effect on the barrier properties of human brain endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3 cell line) treated with methylglyoxal.
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The role of PI3K/AKT-related PIP5K1α and the discovery of its selective inhibitor for treatment of advanced prostate cancer
PNAS 2014
J. Semenas et al.
HoloMonitor M3 was used to show which treatments that lead to changed morphology and reduced size of PC-3 cells.
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Environmental and Toxicological Impacts of Glyphosate with Its Formulating Adjuvant
International Journal of Agricultural, Biosystems Science and Engineering 2014
I. Székács et al.
The article describes a study of the health effects of the well-known, widely used herbicide Roundup. In the study, the HoloMonitor M4 was used to assess toxic effects to animal cells after exposure to Roundup.
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2013
Prevention and treatment of colon cancer by peroral administration of HAMLET
Gut 2013
M. Puthia, P. Storm, A. Nadeem, S. Hsiung, C. Svanborg
Using the HoloMonitor M2, the authors show that cell thickness and adherent surface area change drama­tically after HAMLET treatment. HAMLET is a human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells.
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Lipids as Tumoricidal Components of Human α-Lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumor Cells (HAMLET): UNIQUE AND SHARED EFFECTS ON SIGNALING AND DEATH
J. of Biological Chemistry 2013
J. C. S. Ho, P. Storm, A. Rydström, B. Bowen, F. Alsin, L. Sullivan, I. Ambite, K. H. Mok, T. Northen and C. Svanborg
The authors used the HoloMonitor M3 to observe morphological differences on cells over time, treated with either Hamlet or various lipids associated with HAMLET.
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A Unifying Mechanism for Cancer Cell Death through Ion Channel Activation by HAMLET
PLOS one 2013
P. Storm, T. K. Klausen, M. Trulsson, J. C. S Ho, M. Dosnon, T. Westergren, Y. Chao, A. Rydström, H. Yang, S. F. Pedersen and C. Svanborg
Changes in cell morphology was studied using HoloMonitor technology.
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Fibroblasts Cultured on Nanowires Exhibit Low Motility, Impaired Cell Division, and DNA Damage
Small 2013
H. Persson, C. Købler, K. Mølhave, L. Samuelson, J. O. Tegenfeldt, S. Oredsson and C. N. Prinz
Fibroblast behaviour on vertical nanowire arrays was investigated using the Holo­Monitor M3. It was shown that cell motility and proliferation rate are reduced on nanowires. Fibroblasts cultured on long nanowires exhibit failed cell division, DNA damage, increased ROS content and respiration.
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Cells and Holograms — Holograms and Digital Holographic Microscopy as a Tool to Study the Morphology of Living Cells
Holography — Basic Principles and Contemporary Applications 2013
K. Alm, Z. El-Schich, M. Falck Miniotis, A. Gjörloff Wingren, B. Janicke and S. Oredsson
A dying unstained L929 mouse fibroblast cell, imaged every four minutes after etoposide (50µM) treatment. The arrows point to a cell, which starts its death process by contracting slightly. Optically, the cell content becomes thin and finally the cell remnants start to dissolve.
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2012
Low Resolution Solution Structure of HAMLET and the Importance of Its Alpha-Domains in Tumoricidal Activity
PLOS ONE 2012
J. C. S. Ho, A. Rydstrom, M. S. S. Manimekalai, C. Svanborg and G. Grüber
The authors use the HoloMonitor M3 to detect morphological changes in A549 lung carcinoma cells treated with HAMLET, alpha1 peptide+oleate, alpha2 peptide+oleate and beta peptide+oleate.
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HAMLET: functional properties and therapeutic potential
Future Medicine 2012
J. C. S. Ho, A. Rydström, M. Trulsson, J. Bålfors, P. Storm, M. Puthia, A. Nadeem and C. Svanborg
The authors use HoloMonitor M3 to study morphological kinetics in lung carcinoma cells exposed to HAMLET.
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Dermatan Sulfate is involved in the tumorigenic properties of esophagus squamos cell carcinom
Cancer Research 2012
M. A. Thelin, K. J. Svensson, X. Shi et al.
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Holographic microscopy video showing asymmetrical cell division of JIMT-1 cells
The CELL — an imaging library 2012
Birgit Janicke
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Holographic time-lapse video showing live human prostate cells (DU 145) undergoing apoptosis, induced by etoposide
The CELL — an imaging library 2012
Birgit Janicke
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2011
Digital Holography and Cell Studies in Holography
Research and Technologies 2011
K. Alm, H. Cirenajwis, L. Gisselsson, A. Gjörloff Wingren, B. Janicke, A. Mölder, S. Oredsson, J. Persson
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HAMLET Binding to α-Actinin Facilitates Tumor Cell Detachment
PLOS ONE 2011
M. Trulsson, H. Yu, L. Gisselsson, Y. Chao, A. Urbano, S. Aits, A-K. Mossberg, C. Svanborg
Trulsson et al. used the label-free cell morphology analysis capabilities of the HoloMonitor to follow the cell death process of A549 lung cancer cells treated with HAMLET (right). HAMLET is a milk protein-lipid complex which is both tumoricidal and triggers cell detachment both in vivo and in vitro. HAMLET treatment therefore caused cells to round up and become less optically dense, which was clearly quantified by the HoloMonitor.
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2010
Reduction of the putative CD44+CD24 breast cancer stem cell population by targeting the polyamine metabolic pathway with PG11047
Anticancer Drugs 2010
Cirenajwis et al.
Cirenajwis and colleagues used the label-free live cell imaging capabilities of the HoloMonitor to study the movement of JIMT-1 breast cancer cells. They showed that treatment with the ornithine analogue difluoromethylor-nithine (DFMO) increased cell motility, while treatment with the polyamine analogue PG-11047 decreased cell motility.
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Generation of trisomies in cancer cells by multipolar mitosis and incomplete cytokinesis
PNAS 2010
David Gisselsson Nord et al.
In collaboration with PHI, Gisselsson and colleagues studied cell division in short-term cultures established from fibroblasts and primary tumors. The cultures were followed for up to ten days using Holo­Monitor M2. The researchers showed that abnormal cell divisions can cause an abnormal number of chromosomes in cancer cells.
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More about David Gisselsson Nord

Holographic time-lapse series showing a tripolar metaphase (green broken lines; t = 0) followed by tripolar ana-telophase (t = 14–36 min). Cytokinesis is initiated along two cleavage furrows in this cell division (t = 70 min), but one of the cleavage furrows regresses and only two daughter cells are formed (t = 306 min), of which the larger is binucleate as evidenced by two clusters of nucleoli. The larger cell (t = 3,192 min) enters mitosis (red broken lines), forming a single mitotic plate and divides into two daughters (t = 3,586 min). Daughter cells from both cell divisions remained without evidence of cell death or degeneration throughout the observation time.

Digital Holography and Cell Motility
Microscopy: Science, Technology, Applications and Education 2010
J. Persson, A. Mölder, S-G. Pettersson, K. Alm
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Immunomodulatory nanoparticles as adjuvants and allergen-delivery system to human dendritic cells: Implications for specific immunotherapy
Vaccine 2010
S. Broos, K. Lundberg, T. Akagi, K. Kadowaki, M. Akashi, L. Greiff, C. A. Borrebaeck, M. Lindstedt
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Digital holographic microscopy — innovative and non-destructive analysis of living cells
Microscopy: Science, Technology, Applications and Education 2010
Z. El-Schish, A. Mölder, M. Sebesta, L. Gisselsson, K. Alm, A. Gjörloff Wingren
3D phase shift image of antibody-targeted T leukemia cells, taken from the article.
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2008
Non-invasive, label-free cell counting and quantitative analysis of adherent cells using digital holography
J. of Microscopy 2008
Anna Mölder et al.
Mölder et al. show that cell counting using the HoloMonitor yields results equivalent to counting in a hemo­cytometer. Using the HoloMonitor to measure cell confluence yields results comparable to cell counting. Instead of cell number or confluence, optical density (cell dry mass) can be used as a cell counting parameter. The diagram shows manual and HoloMonitor-assisted cell counting as well as confluence of L929 mouse fibroblast cells.
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Design of Reconfigurable Hardware Architectures for Real-time Applications
Department of Electrical and Information Technology, Lund University 2008
Doctoral thesis by T. Lenart
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A hardware acceleration platform for digital holographic imaging
Journal of VLSI Signal Processing Systems 2008
T. Lenart, M. Gustafsson, V. Öwall
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Modeling and exploration of a reconfigurable architecture for digital holographic imaging
IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems 2008
T. Lenart, H. Svensson, V. Öwall
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2005
Object characterization with refractometric digital Fourier holography
Optics Letters 2005
M. Sebesta, M. Gustafsson
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2004
Refractometry of microscopic objects with digital holography
Applied Optics 2004
M. Gustafsson, M. Sebesta
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High-resolution digital transmission microscopy — a Fourier holography approach
Optics and Lasers in Engineering 2004
M. Gustafsson, M. Sebesta, B. Bengtsson, S.G. Pettersson, P. Egelberg, T. Lenart
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